Covid-19 Immunity Post infection

Covid-19 patients that have recovered might still have to be careful and follow social distance and self isolation rules. When your immune system encounters a new pathogen and successfully defends the host; the immune system will release antibodies specific to that pathogen. If the host comes into contact with that pathogen again these antibodies will recognise the pathogen and mount a far quicker defence and the host may not even be aware, they have come in contact with the pathogen or may present with less severe symptoms.
The whole premise of vaccine is based on the immune system creating specific antibodies to a pathogen. In 1796 Edward Jenner deliberately infected a 10-year-old child called James Phipps with the Vaccinia virus otherwise known as cowpox. Vaccinia belongs to the same genus as the Variola virus also known as Smallpox. This deadly disease is thought to of killed 300-500 million people. Jenner repeated the experiment on 10 other people over 2 years. His work shown that infection with the cowpox virus leads to resistance to the smallpox virus and this eventually led to vaccinations. Interestingly ‘vacca’ in Latin is cow.
Covid-19 is a virus caused by a new coronavirus and patients that have recovered from this infection will have specific antibodies made from the immune system. Is this enough to offer protection against reinfection?
There has been news of recovered Covid-19 patients being infected again. Currently there is little research on Covid-19 even less research on immunity to this virus. Assumptions for immunity to Covid-19 for now have to be made from previous coronavirus epidemics such as the SARS outbreak in 2002-2003.
In cases where patients have been infected again with Covid-19 it must be established if this is reinfection the main points are.

  • Patients that tested positive for Covid-19 and then tested negative could have a false negative test result. Patients in this case may have had the infection for a longer period of time and then tested negative but the test may be a false negative. Every test has false negative and false positives.
  • Patients that tested positive after being given the all clear may have had weaker immune systems. Therefore, the immune system cannot mount the same defence when they come in contact with the same virus as someone with a stronger immune system.
  • A study done after the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak in China shown that specific antibodies to SARS remained in the blood for 2 years and started to reduce in year 3 post infection (Wu et al., 2007).
  • There are two strains of Covid-19 L-type and S-type the L-type is more aggressive. This should be taken into account when testing.

Conclusion 
The reported cases of reinfection may be due to a false negative result and reinfection may be due to a weak immune system. Recovered Covid-19 patients will most likely have immunity but for how long? Until more research for immunity to Covid-19 is conducted it is suggested that recovered patients follow the same social distancing and self-isolation as everybody else. Aggressive testing for patients infected with Covid-19 that appear to have recovered would seem prudent.
Fortunately, Covid-19 appears to have a slower mutation rate than that of influenzas which bodes well for vaccine design and new strains appearing in the near future.
If you have any question relating to diet and exercise please contact us and stay safe stay isolated.
Reference:

  • WU, L.-P., WANG, N.-C., CHANG, Y.-H., TIAN, X.-Y., NA, D.-Y., ZHANG, L.-Y., ZHENG, L., LAN, T., WANG, L.-F. & LIANG, G.-D. 2007. Duration of antibody responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome. Emerging infectious diseases, 13, 1562-1564.

 

R0 do you really know what it is and what it means?

60 Seconds read
Most people may know what the R0 (pronounced R nought) is, but if you do not read on or if you do, he is a recap and read on. R0 is not a risk or a rate it is a number that can take any positive value. If a population is susceptible to a given infection which nobody is immune too (this is what we call a naïve population). An infection such as Covid-19 is introduced by one individual known as the infective. The infective will make contact with other individuals passing the infection along whilst they are contagious; these are called secondary infections. The R0 number is the average number of secondary infections that result from an infective. The UK population is susceptible to Covid-19.
R0 encapsulates the relationship between an infection and its physical and social environment. The number of secondary infections depends on the ability of the pathogen to survive outside the host and to migrate from host to host. In the case of Covid-19 biological and social factors directly affect the ability of the virus to transfer from one host to another. The main route of transmission for Covid-19 is aerosol, you cough and out comes droplets with virions present, which spread the disease in a range of 1-3 metres. Covid-19 can survive for 9 days on fomites (fomites are objects/materials that pathogens can transmit from) for example Covid-19 virus can survive on a handrail for up to 9 days. The transmission can also be affected by the occurrence and type of contacts that take place in the naïve population, this varies according to socio-economic factors and different cultures. All these factors affect the R0 number.
R0 is central in infectious disease epidemiology because if R0 is less than 1 or equal to 1 the infection will eventually die out. If it is greater than 1, they may be a large epidemic ahead and the infection may become endemic, that is, it will always be around.
The R0 number for Covid-19 is estimated to be 2.5 (based on china). For each person that gets Covid-19 a further 2.5 will also be infected. Basically 1 person infected becomes another 2.5 infected. These 2.5 infective will pass it along to another 2.5 individuals and it goes on and on. For Covid-19 by 4 generations from 1 single infective it will result in 46.5 cases.
Keeping distance away from people, not touching surfaces, not touching your face, washing your hands and washing your clothes will help prevent the spread of the virus. Furthermore, self-isolation to the best of your ability will better yet prevent the spread of Covid-19. Pathogens such as Covid-19 affect people in different ways. Some will only have mild symptoms, and some will have severe symptoms, and some will die. How do you know if you have the immune system to beat Covid-19 even if you don’t have underlying health conditions and you are not elderly Covid-19 may affect you more than it does others? We have a RESPONSIBILITY to ensure we follow these instructions and safeguard our vulnerable populations.
GC Biosciences are closing all consultation rooms across the country and of course worldwide until the peak of this pandemic is over. We simply cannot afford to have our consultants, nurses, phlebotomists and supporting staff at risk. In the meantime, our consultants will work from home and give free advice on diet and exercise regarding Covid-19. Our staff comprises Exercise physiologists, Nutritionists, GP’s, PhD’s and Health scientists who have studied and researched infectious diseases. We are at hand in this time of need and for free to help you. If you need to contact us please use the contact page
Stay safe and isolate.
 
 
 
 
 

Fish Oils Why Poliquin Used Them and Why We Do To

60 Seconds read
FISH OIL the late Charles Poliquin was a big advocate of fish oil supplementation mainly due to the omega 3 fatty acids. When Charles Poliquin achieved commercial international success there were polarising argument for and against the reasoning of the use of high dose fish oil. Some of our employees and directors attended many Poliquin seminars and all enjoyed the material and liked the man. We often recommend clients take fish oil for some reason or another, we have ample amount of research to condone the use. This is what Charles Poliquin had to say about one of his favourite supplements from one of his books.

  1. Cell membrane health: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ensure that cell membranes remain healthy. The membranes are flexible and contain larger numbers of insulin receptors that are more receptive and responsive to circulating insulin. This results in decreased fat storage in the adipocytes (fat cells)
  2. Fish oil turns on the lipolytic genes (fat burning genes)
  3. Fish oils turn off the lipogenic genes (fat storage genes),
  4. 4.Fish oils diminish C-reactive proteins, a newly identified risk factor associated with various inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, angina, coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, congestive heart failure and diabetes. The D.H.A. fraction of the fish oil seems to be one most responsible for that protective effect. DHA also has best ability to reduce blood pressure.
  5. Increase utilization of fat stores from the adipocytes.
  6. Preferential utilization for energy production once stored in the Adipocytes.
  7. Reduced inflammation from physical training.
  8. Pain management from the reduced inflammation.
  9. EPA regulates blood supply to the brain that is essential in maintaining focus in weight training sessions. DHA is important in brain membranes, memory and cognitive function.
  10. Fish oils increase serotonin levels (the happy neurotransmitter). Therefore, fish oils will decrease incidence of depression, anxiety, panic attack and reduce carbohydrate cravings.
  11. Fish oils will improve your cardio-vascular risk profile by lowering VLDL, triglycerides, homocysteine, fibrinogen and increasing HDL levels. Combining fish oils with plant sterols will improve lipid levels even more than either alone.
  12. Fish oils can also decrease blood pressure by several mechanisms. These include increases in the vasodilatory compound, nitric oxide, reducing vascular inflammation, blocking the constrictive elements in the vascular wall such as the calcium channels reducing blood viscosity, and inhibiting a blood vessel constrictor (thromboxane). Lipoprotein (a) is another CVD predictor that can be lowered by fish oils (a 19% reduction was seen with natural, stable fish oils and just 4% with a highly purified fish oil).
  13. Fish oils are a great stress fighter. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids inhibits the adrenal activation of steroids, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines) elicited by a mental stress, apparently through effects exerted at the level of the central nervous system. Therefore, for the same amount of stress, one will produce fewer stress hormones if consuming fish oils on a regular basis.

These are some great reasons for using this supplement. However, if you find that there is a valid scientific reason why one of these reasons is not valid then email us back and let us know why and show the evidence, we’ll respond in kind.
Here is an example of one research, it is old from 1995 but it is double blind placebo with a high number of participants.
KREMER, J. M., LAWRENCE, D. A., PETRILLO, G. F., LITTS, L. L., MULLALY, P. M., RYNES, R. I., STOCKER, R. P., PARHAMI, N., GREENSTEIN, N. S., FUCHS, B. R., MATHUR, A., ROBINSON, D. R., SPERLING, R. I. & BIGAOUETTE, J. 1995. Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs clinical and immune correlates. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 38, 1107-1114.
 

Very Low Ketogenic Carbohydrate Diet Proves Best

60 Seconds read
The argument of very low ketogenic carbohydrate diets vs energy restricted diets and low carbohydrate diets is talked about every day on the internet, in the classroom, among peers, on the gym floor and amongst people who diet. Some claim that energy restriction is better and low carbohydrate ketogenic diets are not needed. In fact, this topic can get arguments very heated.
Well what is the research on this topic? (Govers et al., 2019) set out to ask if very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets are more effective than energy restrictive diets or low carbohydrate diets in patients with diabetes and/or obesity. The scientists monitored weight, HbA1c levels and medication use over a period of 12 months with follow ups at 3, t6 and 12 months.
The very low carbohydrate ketogenic group used a 6×6 diet method where the participants only ate 6 grams of carbohydrates 6 times per day, the energy restricted diabetes group ate 600 kcal less than usual amount of kcal and the low carbohydrate group ate 50 to 100 grams per day. Ate the end of the trial the low ketogenic group was more effective than energy restriction and low carbohydrate, resulting in remission of type 2 diabetes or less medication use, increased weight loss and decreased HbA1c levels. Meaning a ketogenic diet in OBESE and/or DIABETIC patients is more advantageous than other diets.
This will no doubt make some peoples eyes roll with disbelief. However, this study shows a clear improvement when obese and diabetic patients use a low ketogenic diet. If someone is on a ketogenic diet and it is working for them why make a fuss about it. Surely if someone is taking care to do a diet with positive health outcomes slandering the diet in use will result in doubts for that person ultimately creating a change in the diet. To learn more about the basics of a ketogenic diet please read this short article.
Why people make such a fuss about ketogenic diets is a mystery, but they work they always have and always will despite what you may hear or read by others not willing to engage in the actual research. This shows the current scientific theory supports low ketogenic diets for people with obesity and/or diabetes, that theory is fact until other research disproves it. That is what scientific theory is.
If your want to read the research article please click the reference to be taken to the registration page on our website.
Reference:
GOVERS, E., OTTEN, A., SCHUILING, B., BOUWMAN, W., LOURENS, A. & VISSCHER, T. 2019. Effectiveness of the 6 × 6 Dieet® in Obese DMT2 Patients Effectiveness of a Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Compared to a Low Carbohydrate and Energy-Restricted Diet in Overweight/Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, 5.
 

High Aluminium is LINKED with Alzheimer’s Disease.

Aluminium a metal used every day in items such as consumer goods, transport, construction and electrical appliances has been linked with the 2nd most common cause of death in the world ‘Alzheimer’s Disease’ so claims the second study completed in humans.
A recent research study conducted by (Mold et al., 2020) confirmed for the second time that significantly high brain aluminium is linked with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using data from a Columbian cohort of individuals the researchers found 42% of brain tissues had aluminium concentration above the pathologically accepted levels.
The brain tissues were monitored in individuals with familial AD and with a specific mutation of the gene PS1-E280A, which results in elevated cortical levels of amyloid-beta (the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease), early onset of the disease and aggressive disease. The brain tissue was compared in the study with controls, of which did not have the neuropathological disease.
The findings showed around two thirds of aluminium deposits were identified in grey matter and were location in addition to the amyloid-beta deposits. There was shown to be no significant relationship with age and this metals content, although gender differences presented females having higher aluminium content than males.
The researchers discuss an intricate link between neurological familiar AD and deposits of aluminium and amyloid-beta with lead investigator Dr Exley conveying an unequivocal association between aluminium and amyloid-beta especially in individuals with a genetic predisposition. One could say no aluminium = no AD.
Reference:
MOLD, M., LINHART, C., GOMEZ-RAMIREZ, J., VILLEGAS-LANAU, A. & EXLEY, C. 2020. Aluminum and Amyloid-beta in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. [Online] Accessed 28 January 2020 Available at https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad191140

Fake, Fact, Context – Journalism Affects Health News

Fake, Fact or Out of Context Tabloids and News Outlets Over exaggerate Again Over Cancer Cure Claim.
Fake, fact or out of context yesterday news outlets including the BBC, The Sun and The Independent reported the latest breakthrough in a potential cancer treatment in the scientific Journal Nature Immunology and conducted by researchers from Cardiff University (Crowther et al., 2020).
The breakthrough is exciting, but it is in the early stages and has not been tested in humans. The actual research found that a recently identified white blood cell called a T-Cell with a receptor which, can recognise and destroy various cancers in a laboratory environment. This work could eventually lead to new immunotherapies that can cure all types of cancer. However, this work is in its infancy and will take years for this work to bear any fruit if at all.
When genetics was discovered it was thought that all cancers would be able to be identified and cured using gene therapy. It’s been decades since gene therapies were on track to cure all cancer and most gene therapies never panned out. However, that may change in the future due to new gene editing tools.
Let me take you through the BBC’s short report released yesterday on this subject. You can find the report here: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-51182451 we can see that the author is James Gallagher a BBC health and science correspondent. It’s always well worth looking at who has created the report. The title of the report “Immune Discovery ‘may treat all cancers’ shows that the journalist is attempting to distance himself away from what he is writing by using single quotation marks which show the quote was taken from a source within the original research. However, the quote in the title is placed out of context. If you read the article or go further and read the actual research, it states the research is young and much more work is needed.
The moral of the story here is journalists should not pick up the latest promising research and blow it up to sell more papers or land more internet hits. It leads to confusion within the public about health, nutrition and fitness research. A prime example is coffee, one moment the press state it’s bad for you the next it’s good. Well the research tells you within context whether it’s bad or good; the press only report the headlines and in turn that headline and report gets taken out of context.
Make sure you stay informed not by reading the articles with the catchy headlines but by reading everything in context. Journalists want quantity over quality that is they want lots of headlines and they want to be the first and this affects the quality and the integrity of the work.
References:
CROWTHER, M. D., DOLTON, G., LEGUT, M., CAILLAUD, M. E., LLOYD, A., ATTAF, M., GALLOWAY, S. A. E., RIUS, C., FARRELL, C. P., SZOMOLAY, B., AGER, A., PARKER, A. L., FULLER, A., DONIA, M., MCCLUSKEY, J., ROSSJOHN, J., SVANE, I. M., PHILLIPS, J. D. & SEWELL, A. K. 2020. Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening reveals ubiquitous T cell cancer targeting via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein MR1. Nat Immunol.
 

Protein Intake Research Suggests More for Bodybuilders

Exploring New and Old Health News Today – Protein Intake for healthy individuals taking part in strength training
Introduction 
A new research article suggest more protein is needed for bodybuilders on rest days. Current recommendations for protein intake from the Institute of Medicine (2005) states ‘no additional protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise’. There’s always been a debate between fitness professionals, heath professionals and medical professionals about protein recommendations. This research paper was designed to answer a question regarding protein requirements for bodybuilders. The authors exact aim in their own words was “The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders”
The Research 
A recent paper by Bandegan, A,. et al (2017) from the American Society for Nutrition monitored young bodybuilders on a non-training day measuring oxidation of ingested L-phenylalaline to CO2 in response to graded protein intake (0.1 to 3.5 g per kg of bm per day). The Journal of Nutrition publishes peer-reviewed original research papers covering all aspects of experimental nutrition in humans and other animal species.
Conclusion 
The authors concluded that protein recommendations for male body builders at rest on a non training day exceed current IOM recommendations by ~2.6 fold and estimated intakes were 1.7-2.2 g per kg of bm per day. This conclusion is in line with previous nitrogen balance research. The authors concluded that the institute of medicine need to reassess the protein recommendations for undertaking strength training. 
If you’re looking for a diet recommendations please contact us and we can advise the best diet recommendations for you.
References:
Arash Bandegan, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Peter WR Lemon, Indicator Amino Acid–Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 147, Issue 5, May 2017, Pages 850–857, https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.236331

Plaque Build-Up and How You Can Reverse It

Exploring New and Old Health News Today – Alternative Day Fasting and Longevity
Introduction
Plaque build-up known as atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of cardiovascular diseases which is the largest disease, killing the most amount of people in the world. Atherosclerosis happens to everyone on the planet starting at a young age. The plaque build-up can advance quickly or slowly, this all depends on your lifestyle. Do you smoke, drink, use drugs including steroids, are you overweight and how much stress do you have in your life?
What are plaques made up of?
Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium and cellular debris. Plaques form when the arteries are damaged and the circulating molecules previously mentioned thin and narrow the arteries. This ultimately leads to a cardiovascular event.
What are the risk factors?
There are risk factors that indicate advancing plaque build-up, they are:
1.High blood pressure
2.Diabetes or pre-diabetes
3.High blood pressure
4.Elevated cholesterol levels
5.Elevated triglycerides
What can you do to prevent the advancing build-up of plaques!
Make sure you are not overweight, eat slightly less calories (-15%), eat a Mediterranean type of diet, limit alcohol use and stop smoking. Most importantly make sure your blood pressure is normal (under 120/80 mm/HG) and check blood sugar levels every month.
Can you reverse plaque build-up?
This has been the primary focus of so much research in the medical field, can we reverse plaque build-up. Doing so would prevent implanting stents, open heart surgeries and other cardiovascular surgeries and procedures.
Cloarec. M (2007) looked at a preventative agent for atherosclerosis. That agent being GLISODIN. What is GLISODIN? It’s superoxide dismutase (SOD) which can be found in mammals and plants. SOD essentially renders some harmful molecules in the body unharmful. When humans get stressed, smoke, drink, don’t eat well and are overweight we end up depleting SOD.
Cloarec. M (2007) and the team shown through ultrasound imaging that GLISODIN was effective in this one study at preventing atherosclerosis. The research team imaged the intima media thickness also known as the IMT (the two most inner layers of arteries) in the carotid artery (which supplies the blood and neck with oxygenated blood). The group supplementing with GLISODIN were found to have a significant reduction of thickness in intima media compared to the control group who had significant thickening of the intima media.
Where can you get SOD from?
You can obtain SOD in the diet by eating foods such as melon. However, it does not absorb well. Binding it with a molecule called gliadin, a part of the protein gluten found mostly in wheat. When you bind this gliadin with SOD it becomes highly absorbable and you can take it in supplement form. We like the Life extension Endothelial Defence GLISODIN, but you can find GLISODIN in other shops.
Conclusion
Prevent atherosclerosis by eating a Mediterranean diet lower in calories, stop smoking, don’t do any drugs (including steroids), and limit alcohol intake. Regularly check blood pressure and glucose to monitor signs of high blood pressure and diabetes. Taking GLISODIN reduces IMT in the carotid artery which may help reverse plaque build-up in the arteries.
If you have high blood pressure, pre-diabetes, diabetes and are overweight you will benefit from our services. We will run some simple tests and then put you on an easy diet and recommend some supplements. You should contact us before you have an cardiovascular event such as an heart attack or angina. Contact us here today to start your journey. Before starting taking GLISODIN please check with your healthcare provider if you’re not on a program with us.
To get access to the research and our research library please click here to sign up for an account
Reference:
Cloarec. M, et al 2007. ‘GLISODIN®†, A VEGETAL SOD WITH GLIADIN, AS PREVENTATIVE AGENT VS. ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AS CONFIRMED WITH CAROTID ULTRASOUND-B IMAGING’ 

Longevity May Improve by Using Alternative Day Fasting

Exploring New and Old Health News Today – Alternative Day Fasting and Longevity
 
What do we know about restricting calories and intermittent fasting diets
Restricting calories and intermittent fasting diets are commonly known to improve and extend lives as well as health span in model organisms. Calorie restriction in humans in the subject area “longevity” have fewer studies and are not as controlled as the model organisms studies.
What do we know now?
However, one study conducted by Slaven Stekovic et al, (2019) titled ‘Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy Non-obese Humans’ shown that non obese adults using alternative day fasting decreased body weight by 4.5% and improves the fat to lean ratio.
Caloric restriction also resulted in reduced levels of sICAM-1 which is an age-associated inflammatory marker. Low density lipoprotein and triiodothyronine commonly known as T3 an important metabolic regulator also improved. This article shows that alternative day fasting could become a clinically intervention.
Is it safe?
Indeed, this was the case in a follow up article Leonie K. Heilbronn et al, (2019) continued to show improved markers for up to 6 months in the non-obese patients that were the participants in Stekovic et al. (2019) article. Alternative day fasting gets approval for being safe to use in humans.
It’s important to ensure, before we embark on any anti-ageing campaign that your diet is in line with what your trying to do. This way you have a better chance of looking younger and preventing disease’s like obesity and cardiovascular disease helping you live to a long ripe age.
Make sure you contact you contact your physician before starting a new diet. Or contact us here and we can go through your diet with you.
References:
Slaven Stekovic et al, 2019 ‘Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy, Non-obese Humans’ Cell Metabolism. issue 3. vol. 30. pp. 462-476
Leonie K. Heilbronn et al, 2019 ‘Alternate-Day Fasting Gets a Safe Bill of Health’ Cell Metabolism. issue. 30. vol. 3. pp. 411-413

Anti-Ageing Which Supplements are Cardioprotective

Exploring New and Old Health News Today – Anti-Ageing and Nutraceuticals for Atherosclerosis
If we want to enjoy the benefits of any Anti-Ageing regime whether they be medications such as metformin, a diet that involves fasting to induce autophagy (the clean-up of dysfunctional components and cells), exercise, supplements such as Spermidine (see yesterday’s News Flash) or anti-ageing beauty products one needs to ensure their cardiovascular system is protected.
In this News Flash we’ll talk about supplements which are nutraceuticals that may help with atherosclerosis, we can then move onto diets best for anti-ageing. Which nutraceuticals confer cardioprotective benefits? Thanks to a review article published in the Nat Rev Cardiol in September 2016 we can have a look at the clinical evidence in humans. So here we go:
Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fats
People who consume omega 3 fatty acids either through supplements or food shown a decreased level of triglycerides. One of the omega 3 fatty acids called DHA reduced endothelium function and improved arterial stiffness. Sudden cardiac death was 45% lower in one study lasting a year in the group that took Polyunsaturated Fats.
Omega 6 Polyunsaturated Fats
Low levels of Omega 6 have been correlated with peripheral arterial disease. One small study shown a decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase of HDL cholesterol. However, too much Omega 6 can lead to arterial stiffness and increased CRP levels.
Allicin (Garlic)
Supplementation with garlic in one study involving 152 participants, high-dose dietary garlic supplementation decreased lesion volumes by 6-18%. Another study showed that treatment with statin plus aged garlic extract slowed the rate of atherosclerotic development by reducing coronary calcification. A meta-analysis of 45 trials found that garlic supplementation was also able to reduce serum levels of LDL, triglycerides and cholesterol after 1-3 months but not after 6 months, meaning the body probably gets use Allicin. Garlic exerts its cardioprotective effects via alternative mechanisms as well, such as reducing ROS production and attenuating pro-inflammatory gene expression, rather than directly altering the ratio of LDL to HDL in the bloodstream after 6 months.
Phytosterols
One epidemiological study involving 22,256 participants found a correlation between diets with high levels of phytosterols and low levels of serum LDL, supporting the role of phytosterols in LDL lowering. Another study consistent in that finding involving 233 participants shown a significant decrease in serum LDL inside of 12 weeks of taking phytosterols. Phytosterols have also been shown to mediate strong anti-inflammatory effects in humans.
Flavanols
High flavanol diets increase nitric oxide production showing flavanols exert cardioprotective benefits. Flavanols might exert their cardiovascular health benefits by lowering circulating LDL levels and possibly blood pressure through the increase of nitric oxide, both of which are key risk factors of atherosclerosis development.
Vitamin C and E
Both vitamin C and E once considered ideal supplements for the prevention of atherosclerosis owing to their antioxidative and vasodilatory properties, they have not been proven to be consistently effective in long-term prevention of CVD.
Dietary Fibre
The relationship between increased fibre intake and reduced cardiovascular disease is well known. A 6 year follow up study involving nearly 40,000 patients with high fibre intake was associated with a lower risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases.
Carnosine
Carnosine has shown to reduce the glycation (bonding of a sugar molecule to a lipid) of LDL in human monocyte-derived macrophages resulting in reduced intracellular cholesterol accumulation. Carnosine also improved insulin resistance but did not decrease blood pressure.
Coenzyme Q10
If you’re taking statins for their lipid lowering effect the production of Coq10 will be affected. Considering CoQ10 is involved in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria you may feel low in energy, taking CoQ10 may help restore the side effects of low energy by statins. CoQ10 may also prevent atherosclerosis.
Curcumin
One randomised double-blind trial involving 240 individuals with type 2 diabetes reported a decrease in CVD risk with 6 months of curcumin dietary supplementation.
Resveratrol
Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet with a 0.01% dietary supplementation of resveratrol were found to have smaller atherosclerotic lesions by approximately 50% compared with control mice, in addition to improved lesion stability due to increased ratio of collagen to macrophages. However, the cardioprotective benefits were similar between the reservatrol-only and statin-only groups. More studies are needed to see if resveratrol separated away from statins are required to determine its potential as a nutraceutical.
Conclusion
No supplements can outrun a well planned and executed exercise and diet regime especially in anti-ageing. Adding some of the supplements mentioned here may help to give you those cardioprotective benefits. Please note before adding these supplements speak to your health practitioner first.
To access the research related to this News Flash please click here to register an account with us.
References:
Joe W.E. Moss, Dipak P. Ramji, 2016. ‘Nutraceutical therapies for atherosclerosis’ Nat Rev Cardiol. vol. 13. no. 9. pp. 513-532