Covid-19 Immunity Post infection

Covid-19 patients that have recovered might still have to be careful and follow social distance and self isolation rules. When your immune system encounters a new pathogen and successfully defends the host; the immune system will release antibodies specific to that pathogen. If the host comes into contact with that pathogen again these antibodies will recognise the pathogen and mount a far quicker defence and the host may not even be aware, they have come in contact with the pathogen or may present with less severe symptoms.
The whole premise of vaccine is based on the immune system creating specific antibodies to a pathogen. In 1796 Edward Jenner deliberately infected a 10-year-old child called James Phipps with the Vaccinia virus otherwise known as cowpox. Vaccinia belongs to the same genus as the Variola virus also known as Smallpox. This deadly disease is thought to of killed 300-500 million people. Jenner repeated the experiment on 10 other people over 2 years. His work shown that infection with the cowpox virus leads to resistance to the smallpox virus and this eventually led to vaccinations. Interestingly ‘vacca’ in Latin is cow.
Covid-19 is a virus caused by a new coronavirus and patients that have recovered from this infection will have specific antibodies made from the immune system. Is this enough to offer protection against reinfection?
There has been news of recovered Covid-19 patients being infected again. Currently there is little research on Covid-19 even less research on immunity to this virus. Assumptions for immunity to Covid-19 for now have to be made from previous coronavirus epidemics such as the SARS outbreak in 2002-2003.
In cases where patients have been infected again with Covid-19 it must be established if this is reinfection the main points are.

  • Patients that tested positive for Covid-19 and then tested negative could have a false negative test result. Patients in this case may have had the infection for a longer period of time and then tested negative but the test may be a false negative. Every test has false negative and false positives.
  • Patients that tested positive after being given the all clear may have had weaker immune systems. Therefore, the immune system cannot mount the same defence when they come in contact with the same virus as someone with a stronger immune system.
  • A study done after the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak in China shown that specific antibodies to SARS remained in the blood for 2 years and started to reduce in year 3 post infection (Wu et al., 2007).
  • There are two strains of Covid-19 L-type and S-type the L-type is more aggressive. This should be taken into account when testing.

The reported cases of reinfection may be due to a false negative result and reinfection may be due to a weak immune system. Recovered Covid-19 patients will most likely have immunity but for how long? Until more research for immunity to Covid-19 is conducted it is suggested that recovered patients follow the same social distancing and self-isolation as everybody else. Aggressive testing for patients infected with Covid-19 that appear to have recovered would seem prudent.
Fortunately, Covid-19 appears to have a slower mutation rate than that of influenzas which bodes well for vaccine design and new strains appearing in the near future.
If you have any question relating to diet and exercise please contact us and stay safe stay isolated.

  • WU, L.-P., WANG, N.-C., CHANG, Y.-H., TIAN, X.-Y., NA, D.-Y., ZHANG, L.-Y., ZHENG, L., LAN, T., WANG, L.-F. & LIANG, G.-D. 2007. Duration of antibody responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome. Emerging infectious diseases, 13, 1562-1564.


R0 do you really know what it is and what it means?

60 Seconds read
Most people may know what the R0 (pronounced R nought) is, but if you do not read on or if you do, he is a recap and read on. R0 is not a risk or a rate it is a number that can take any positive value. If a population is susceptible to a given infection which nobody is immune too (this is what we call a naïve population). An infection such as Covid-19 is introduced by one individual known as the infective. The infective will make contact with other individuals passing the infection along whilst they are contagious; these are called secondary infections. The R0 number is the average number of secondary infections that result from an infective. The UK population is susceptible to Covid-19.
R0 encapsulates the relationship between an infection and its physical and social environment. The number of secondary infections depends on the ability of the pathogen to survive outside the host and to migrate from host to host. In the case of Covid-19 biological and social factors directly affect the ability of the virus to transfer from one host to another. The main route of transmission for Covid-19 is aerosol, you cough and out comes droplets with virions present, which spread the disease in a range of 1-3 metres. Covid-19 can survive for 9 days on fomites (fomites are objects/materials that pathogens can transmit from) for example Covid-19 virus can survive on a handrail for up to 9 days. The transmission can also be affected by the occurrence and type of contacts that take place in the naïve population, this varies according to socio-economic factors and different cultures. All these factors affect the R0 number.
R0 is central in infectious disease epidemiology because if R0 is less than 1 or equal to 1 the infection will eventually die out. If it is greater than 1, they may be a large epidemic ahead and the infection may become endemic, that is, it will always be around.
The R0 number for Covid-19 is estimated to be 2.5 (based on china). For each person that gets Covid-19 a further 2.5 will also be infected. Basically 1 person infected becomes another 2.5 infected. These 2.5 infective will pass it along to another 2.5 individuals and it goes on and on. For Covid-19 by 4 generations from 1 single infective it will result in 46.5 cases.
Keeping distance away from people, not touching surfaces, not touching your face, washing your hands and washing your clothes will help prevent the spread of the virus. Furthermore, self-isolation to the best of your ability will better yet prevent the spread of Covid-19. Pathogens such as Covid-19 affect people in different ways. Some will only have mild symptoms, and some will have severe symptoms, and some will die. How do you know if you have the immune system to beat Covid-19 even if you don’t have underlying health conditions and you are not elderly Covid-19 may affect you more than it does others? We have a RESPONSIBILITY to ensure we follow these instructions and safeguard our vulnerable populations.
GC Biosciences are closing all consultation rooms across the country and of course worldwide until the peak of this pandemic is over. We simply cannot afford to have our consultants, nurses, phlebotomists and supporting staff at risk. In the meantime, our consultants will work from home and give free advice on diet and exercise regarding Covid-19. Our staff comprises Exercise physiologists, Nutritionists, GP’s, PhD’s and Health scientists who have studied and researched infectious diseases. We are at hand in this time of need and for free to help you. If you need to contact us please use the contact page
Stay safe and isolate.

Fish Oils Why Poliquin Used Them and Why We Do To

60 Seconds read
FISH OIL the late Charles Poliquin was a big advocate of fish oil supplementation mainly due to the omega 3 fatty acids. When Charles Poliquin achieved commercial international success there were polarising argument for and against the reasoning of the use of high dose fish oil. Some of our employees and directors attended many Poliquin seminars and all enjoyed the material and liked the man. We often recommend clients take fish oil for some reason or another, we have ample amount of research to condone the use. This is what Charles Poliquin had to say about one of his favourite supplements from one of his books.

  1. Cell membrane health: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ensure that cell membranes remain healthy. The membranes are flexible and contain larger numbers of insulin receptors that are more receptive and responsive to circulating insulin. This results in decreased fat storage in the adipocytes (fat cells)
  2. Fish oil turns on the lipolytic genes (fat burning genes)
  3. Fish oils turn off the lipogenic genes (fat storage genes),
  4. 4.Fish oils diminish C-reactive proteins, a newly identified risk factor associated with various inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, angina, coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, congestive heart failure and diabetes. The D.H.A. fraction of the fish oil seems to be one most responsible for that protective effect. DHA also has best ability to reduce blood pressure.
  5. Increase utilization of fat stores from the adipocytes.
  6. Preferential utilization for energy production once stored in the Adipocytes.
  7. Reduced inflammation from physical training.
  8. Pain management from the reduced inflammation.
  9. EPA regulates blood supply to the brain that is essential in maintaining focus in weight training sessions. DHA is important in brain membranes, memory and cognitive function.
  10. Fish oils increase serotonin levels (the happy neurotransmitter). Therefore, fish oils will decrease incidence of depression, anxiety, panic attack and reduce carbohydrate cravings.
  11. Fish oils will improve your cardio-vascular risk profile by lowering VLDL, triglycerides, homocysteine, fibrinogen and increasing HDL levels. Combining fish oils with plant sterols will improve lipid levels even more than either alone.
  12. Fish oils can also decrease blood pressure by several mechanisms. These include increases in the vasodilatory compound, nitric oxide, reducing vascular inflammation, blocking the constrictive elements in the vascular wall such as the calcium channels reducing blood viscosity, and inhibiting a blood vessel constrictor (thromboxane). Lipoprotein (a) is another CVD predictor that can be lowered by fish oils (a 19% reduction was seen with natural, stable fish oils and just 4% with a highly purified fish oil).
  13. Fish oils are a great stress fighter. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids inhibits the adrenal activation of steroids, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines) elicited by a mental stress, apparently through effects exerted at the level of the central nervous system. Therefore, for the same amount of stress, one will produce fewer stress hormones if consuming fish oils on a regular basis.

These are some great reasons for using this supplement. However, if you find that there is a valid scientific reason why one of these reasons is not valid then email us back and let us know why and show the evidence, we’ll respond in kind.
Here is an example of one research, it is old from 1995 but it is double blind placebo with a high number of participants.
KREMER, J. M., LAWRENCE, D. A., PETRILLO, G. F., LITTS, L. L., MULLALY, P. M., RYNES, R. I., STOCKER, R. P., PARHAMI, N., GREENSTEIN, N. S., FUCHS, B. R., MATHUR, A., ROBINSON, D. R., SPERLING, R. I. & BIGAOUETTE, J. 1995. Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs clinical and immune correlates. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 38, 1107-1114.

Very Low Ketogenic Carbohydrate Diet Proves Best

60 Seconds read
The argument of very low ketogenic carbohydrate diets vs energy restricted diets and low carbohydrate diets is talked about every day on the internet, in the classroom, among peers, on the gym floor and amongst people who diet. Some claim that energy restriction is better and low carbohydrate ketogenic diets are not needed. In fact, this topic can get arguments very heated.
Well what is the research on this topic? (Govers et al., 2019) set out to ask if very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets are more effective than energy restrictive diets or low carbohydrate diets in patients with diabetes and/or obesity. The scientists monitored weight, HbA1c levels and medication use over a period of 12 months with follow ups at 3, t6 and 12 months.
The very low carbohydrate ketogenic group used a 6×6 diet method where the participants only ate 6 grams of carbohydrates 6 times per day, the energy restricted diabetes group ate 600 kcal less than usual amount of kcal and the low carbohydrate group ate 50 to 100 grams per day. Ate the end of the trial the low ketogenic group was more effective than energy restriction and low carbohydrate, resulting in remission of type 2 diabetes or less medication use, increased weight loss and decreased HbA1c levels. Meaning a ketogenic diet in OBESE and/or DIABETIC patients is more advantageous than other diets.
This will no doubt make some peoples eyes roll with disbelief. However, this study shows a clear improvement when obese and diabetic patients use a low ketogenic diet. If someone is on a ketogenic diet and it is working for them why make a fuss about it. Surely if someone is taking care to do a diet with positive health outcomes slandering the diet in use will result in doubts for that person ultimately creating a change in the diet. To learn more about the basics of a ketogenic diet please read this short article.
Why people make such a fuss about ketogenic diets is a mystery, but they work they always have and always will despite what you may hear or read by others not willing to engage in the actual research. This shows the current scientific theory supports low ketogenic diets for people with obesity and/or diabetes, that theory is fact until other research disproves it. That is what scientific theory is.
If your want to read the research article please click the reference to be taken to the registration page on our website.
GOVERS, E., OTTEN, A., SCHUILING, B., BOUWMAN, W., LOURENS, A. & VISSCHER, T. 2019. Effectiveness of the 6 × 6 Dieet® in Obese DMT2 Patients Effectiveness of a Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Compared to a Low Carbohydrate and Energy-Restricted Diet in Overweight/Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, 5.

High Aluminium is LINKED with Alzheimer’s Disease.

Aluminium a metal used every day in items such as consumer goods, transport, construction and electrical appliances has been linked with the 2nd most common cause of death in the world ‘Alzheimer’s Disease’ so claims the second study completed in humans.
A recent research study conducted by (Mold et al., 2020) confirmed for the second time that significantly high brain aluminium is linked with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using data from a Columbian cohort of individuals the researchers found 42% of brain tissues had aluminium concentration above the pathologically accepted levels.
The brain tissues were monitored in individuals with familial AD and with a specific mutation of the gene PS1-E280A, which results in elevated cortical levels of amyloid-beta (the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease), early onset of the disease and aggressive disease. The brain tissue was compared in the study with controls, of which did not have the neuropathological disease.
The findings showed around two thirds of aluminium deposits were identified in grey matter and were location in addition to the amyloid-beta deposits. There was shown to be no significant relationship with age and this metals content, although gender differences presented females having higher aluminium content than males.
The researchers discuss an intricate link between neurological familiar AD and deposits of aluminium and amyloid-beta with lead investigator Dr Exley conveying an unequivocal association between aluminium and amyloid-beta especially in individuals with a genetic predisposition. One could say no aluminium = no AD.
MOLD, M., LINHART, C., GOMEZ-RAMIREZ, J., VILLEGAS-LANAU, A. & EXLEY, C. 2020. Aluminum and Amyloid-beta in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. [Online] Accessed 28 January 2020 Available at

Fake, Fact, Context – Journalism Affects Health News

Fake, Fact or Out of Context Tabloids and News Outlets Over exaggerate Again Over Cancer Cure Claim.
Fake, fact or out of context yesterday news outlets including the BBC, The Sun and The Independent reported the latest breakthrough in a potential cancer treatment in the scientific Journal Nature Immunology and conducted by researchers from Cardiff University (Crowther et al., 2020).
The breakthrough is exciting, but it is in the early stages and has not been tested in humans. The actual research found that a recently identified white blood cell called a T-Cell with a receptor which, can recognise and destroy various cancers in a laboratory environment. This work could eventually lead to new immunotherapies that can cure all types of cancer. However, this work is in its infancy and will take years for this work to bear any fruit if at all.
When genetics was discovered it was thought that all cancers would be able to be identified and cured using gene therapy. It’s been decades since gene therapies were on track to cure all cancer and most gene therapies never panned out. However, that may change in the future due to new gene editing tools.
Let me take you through the BBC’s short report released yesterday on this subject. You can find the report here: we can see that the author is James Gallagher a BBC health and science correspondent. It’s always well worth looking at who has created the report. The title of the report “Immune Discovery ‘may treat all cancers’ shows that the journalist is attempting to distance himself away from what he is writing by using single quotation marks which show the quote was taken from a source within the original research. However, the quote in the title is placed out of context. If you read the article or go further and read the actual research, it states the research is young and much more work is needed.
The moral of the story here is journalists should not pick up the latest promising research and blow it up to sell more papers or land more internet hits. It leads to confusion within the public about health, nutrition and fitness research. A prime example is coffee, one moment the press state it’s bad for you the next it’s good. Well the research tells you within context whether it’s bad or good; the press only report the headlines and in turn that headline and report gets taken out of context.
Make sure you stay informed not by reading the articles with the catchy headlines but by reading everything in context. Journalists want quantity over quality that is they want lots of headlines and they want to be the first and this affects the quality and the integrity of the work.
CROWTHER, M. D., DOLTON, G., LEGUT, M., CAILLAUD, M. E., LLOYD, A., ATTAF, M., GALLOWAY, S. A. E., RIUS, C., FARRELL, C. P., SZOMOLAY, B., AGER, A., PARKER, A. L., FULLER, A., DONIA, M., MCCLUSKEY, J., ROSSJOHN, J., SVANE, I. M., PHILLIPS, J. D. & SEWELL, A. K. 2020. Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening reveals ubiquitous T cell cancer targeting via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein MR1. Nat Immunol.

Persistent Obesity and the Health Consequences

Featured Article – Persistent Obesity and the Health Consequences
We are all made aware that being overweight is bad for us, but what exactly do they mean by ‘bad?’ Here we will look at what the ramifications for chronic obesity actually are. It’s the time of year where we tend to switch off from our diets and overindulge, all in the name of Christmas. A couple of days of finishing off a cheeseboard or reaching for the after-dinner chocolates won’t really do too much damage to your waistline; but what happens if you carry this habit into the new year and beyond? What happens if something beyond our control makes it near impossible for us to shift the weight?
Obesity- let’s clear this up
Obesity is arguably the most discussed topic in health at the moment and with good reason. The zeitgeist of the moment is that obesity is a disease in itself and so with disease comes symptoms and manifestations. If we consider a number of health conditions associated with obesity as symptoms, then hopefully we can gain some clarity on the vast dangers of being morbidly overweight. Before all of this however, perhaps we should discuss what obesity is. Traditionally we are told that obesity can be identified as having a Body Mass Index score (BMI) of 30-39. The is worked out by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by their height in meters and then dividing that figure by the height again.
The issues
This clearly has inherent issues- many people are misclassified or labelled as obese as a result of gross musculature (Burkhauser, 2008). We should consider the fact that many athletes will be heavy, relative to their body height. Rugby players, American footballers and body builders spring to mind and many are likely to be classified as obese according to BMI alone. A sporting individual that belongs to a professional body will undergo extreme fitness trials, rigorous medical tests and have access to top nutritionists and thus we can be pretty certain that their health (for the most part) is not in jeopardy due to their weight. It is import not that we do not discount the use of BMI entirely because one should be able to tell the difference between a rugby forward’s physique and a person carrying excess fat. Surely then, there must be other criteria to be met before we can decide that some bodies mass is dangerous. Included in this is the hip to weight ratio and overall fat mass and as such we are interested in the impact of excess abdominal adipose tissue.
Dangers of Chronic Obesity
Carrying excessive body fat over a prolonged period promotes a variety of risks, from snoring to cancer with everything such as joint pain and heart problems in between- not to mention low confidence and depression (NHS, 2019). Mental health issues are known to impact on your personal life whereas the physical dangers can actually kill you AND if you don’t succumb to a heart attack, then the quality of your life when living in constant pain from osteoarthritis must surely make one question how things got to be this bad. This is of course, not forgetting the disease on every physician’s lips, type 2 diabetes.
The Mechanisms of obesity and disease
We don’t just store fat on our body as the wobbly parts and it isn’t just an inert, inactive substance. Fat cells are mobile, they send messages and they can be dangerous. The fat you might feel on your waistline is stored as triacyglycerides (TAG) and when we need to use the fat for energy, it is then converted in free fatty acids (FFA) and circulates the body. These FFA however can inhibit insulin sensitivity. We need insulin to work correctly because when we consume sugary foods, the sugar breaks down into glucose and circulates in our blood- excess FFA means excess blood glucose and this of course takes us into type- 2 diabetes territory. As touched on, fat cells are active cells. They release a product called adipokines; a type of protein that instructs cells to carry out certain behaviours. These can be very useful and help to regulate certain hormones and have been found to have health benefits however there are a number of these messenger cells that are linked to cancer promotion. They promote the necessary inflammation, mutation and proliferation required for malignant cells to not only grow, but thrive and spread (Christodoulatos, 2019). We are told that cancer will impact 1 in 2 of us and with one of the known associations being obese (NHS 2019), is there not more that we can do ourselves to tackle the problem?
It seems plain really then, that being obese isn’t something that should be taken lightly. Having too much fat is a dangerous lifestyle choice and should be treated as importantly as the diseases that it causes. The financial burden on the country from obesity and related illnesses is greater than the total spends on the police, fire service and judicial system and in the current climate, the strain may become too great. Control in the war on fat needs to be regained. Healthier lifestyle choices such as an increase in physical activity, decreasing high energy food and drinks intake and keeping a sustained effort to return to or maintain a healthy weight and composition are required to reduce disease and increase life expectancy. Perhaps think twice before you eat that second mince pie, your libido will thank you for it.
read more about obesity and cancer here
Burkhauser, R.V., Cawley, J. (2008) ‘Beyond BMI: The value of more accurate measures of fatness and obesity in social science research’, Journal of Health Economics, 27, (2), pp 519–529
Christodoulatos, G., Spyrou, N., Kadillari, J., Psallida, S., Dalamaga, M. (2019) ‘The Role of Adipokines in Breast Cancer: Current Evidence and Perspectives’, Current Obesity Reports, 8, (4), pp 413-433
NHS. Cancer (online) Available at: 16/12/2019
NHS. Obesity(online) Available at: 16/12/2019

High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial

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Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in young women with high subclinical eating pathology levels: a quantitative EEG study

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Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food

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